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They stand diagonally aligned so that each can observe one side line. Depending on their positions, one is called field referee and the other goal referee.
These positions automatically switch on ball turnover. They physically exchange their positions approximately every 10 minutes long exchange , and change sides every five minutes short exchange.
The IHF defines 18 hand signals for quick visual communication with players and officials. The signal for warning or disqualification is accompanied by a yellow or red card,  respectively.
The referees also use whistle blows to indicate infractions or to restart the play. The referees are supported by a scorekeeper and a timekeeper who attend to formal things such as keeping track of goals and suspensions, or starting and stopping the clock, respectively.
They also keep an eye on the benches and notify the referees on substitution errors. Their desk is located between the two substitution areas.
Each team consists of seven players on court and seven substitute players on the bench. One player on the court must be the designated goalkeeper, differing in his clothing from the rest of the field players.
Substitution of players can be done in any number and at any time during game play. An exchange takes place over the substitution line.
A prior notification of the referees is not necessary. Some national bodies, such as the Deutsche Handball Bund DHB, "German Handball Federation" , allow substitution in junior teams only when in ball possession or during timeouts.
This restriction is intended to prevent early specialization of players to offence or defence. Field players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their bodies above and including the knee.
As in several other team sports, a distinction is made between catching and dribbling. A player who is in possession of the ball may stand stationary for only three seconds, and may take only three steps.
They must then either shoot, pass, or dribble the ball. Taking more than three steps at any time is considered travelling, and results in a turnover.
A player may dribble as many times as they want though, since passing is faster, it is the preferred method of attack , as long as during each dribble the hand contacts only the top of the ball.
Therefore, carrying is completely prohibited, and results in a turnover. After the dribble is picked up, the player has the right to another three seconds or three steps.
The ball must then be passed or shot, as further holding or dribbling will result in a double dribble turnover and a free throw for the other team.
Other offensive infractions that result in a turnover include charging and setting an illegal screen. Carrying the ball into the six-meter zone results either in ball possession by the goalkeeper by attacker or turnover by defender.
Only the goalkeepers are allowed to move freely within the goal perimeter, although they may not cross the goal perimeter line while carrying or dribbling the ball.
Within the zone, they are allowed to touch the ball with all parts of their bodies, including their feet, with a defensive aim for other actions, they are subject to the same restrictions as the field players.
The goalkeepers may participate in the normal play of their teammates. They may be substituted by a regular field player if their team elects to use this scheme in order to outnumber the defending players.
Earlier, this field player become the designated goalkeeper on the court; and had to wear some vest or bib to be identified as such.
A rule change meant to make the game more offensive now allows any player to substitute with the goalkeeper. The new rule resembles the one used in ice hockey.
If either goalkeeper deflects the ball over the outer goal line, their team stays in possession of the ball, in contrast to other sports like football.
The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from within the zone "goalkeeper throw". In a penalty shot, throwing the ball against the head of a goalkeeper who is not moving risks a direct disqualification "red card".
Each team is allowed to have a maximum of four team officials seated on the benches. An official is anybody who is neither player nor substitute.
One official must be the designated representative who is usually the team manager. Since , representatives can call up to 3 team timeouts up to twice per half , and may address the scorekeeper, timekeeper, and referees before that, it was once per half ; overtime and shootouts are considered extensions of the second half.
Other officials typically include physicians or managers. Neither official is allowed to enter the playing court without the permission of the referees.
The ball is spherical and must be made either of leather or a synthetic material. It is not allowed to have a shiny or slippery surface. As the ball is intended to be operated by a single hand, its official sizes vary depending on age and gender of the participating teams.
The referees may award a special throw to a team. This usually happens after certain events such as scored goals, off-court balls, turnovers and timeouts.
All of these special throws require the thrower to obtain a certain position, and pose restrictions on the positions of all other players.
Sometimes the execution must wait for a whistle blow by the referee. Penalties are given to players, in progressive format, for fouls that require more punishment than just a free-throw.
Any infraction that prevents a clear scoring opportunity will result in a seven-meter penalty shot. Typically the referee will give a warning yellow card for an illegal action; but, if the contact was particularly dangerous, like striking the opponent in the head, neck or throat, the referee can forego the warning for an immediate two-minute suspension.
A player can get only one warning before receiving a two-minute suspension. One player is only permitted two two-minute suspensions; after the third time, they will be shown the red card.
A red card results in an ejection from the game and a two-minute penalty for the team. A player may receive a red card directly for particularly rough penalties.
For instance, any contact from behind during a fast break is now being treated with a red card. A red-carded player has to leave the playing area completely.
A player who is disqualified may be substituted with another player after the two-minute penalty is served. A coach or official can also be penalized progressively.
Any coach or official who receives a two-minute suspension will have to pull out one of their players for two minutes; however, the player is not the one punished, and can be substituted in again, as the penalty consists of the team playing with a one player less than the opposing team.
After referees award the ball to the opponents for whatever reason, the player currently in possession of the ball has to lay it down quickly, or risk a two-minute suspension.
If the suspended player protests further, does not walk straight off the field to the bench, or if the referee deems the tempo deliberately slow, the player can be given an additional two-minute suspension.
Illegal substitution outside of the dedicated area, or if the replacement player enters too early is also punishable by a two-minute suspension.
Players are typically referred to by the positions they are playing. The positions are always denoted from the view of the respective goalkeeper, so that a defender on the right opposes an attacker on the left.
However, not all of the following positions may be occupied depending on the formation or potential suspensions. There are many variations in defensive formations.
Usually, they are described as n: Exceptions are the 3: Attacks are played with all field players on the side of the defenders. Depending on the speed of the attack, one distinguishes between three attack waves with a decreasing chance of success:.
The third wave evolves into the normal offensive play when all defenders not only reach the zone, but gain their accustomed positions. Some teams then substitute specialised offence players.
However, this implies that these players must play in the defence should the opposing team be able to switch quickly to offence.
The latter is another benefit for fast playing teams. If the attacking team does not make sufficient progress eventually releasing a shot on goal , the referees can call passive play since about , the referee gives a passive warning some time before the actual call by holding one hand up in the air, signalling that the attacking team should release a shot soon , turning control over to the other team.
A shot on goal or an infringement leading to a yellow card or two-minute penalty will mark the start of a new attack, causing the hand to be taken down; but a shot blocked by the defense or a normal free throw will not.
If it were not for this rule, it would be easy for an attacking team to stall the game indefinitely, as it is difficult to intercept a pass without at the same time conceding dangerous openings towards the goal.
Very fast teams will also try a 3—3 formation which is close to a switching man-to-man style. Handball teams are usually organised as clubs.
On a national level, the clubs are associated in federations which organize matches in leagues and tournaments. Handball is an Olympic sport played during the Summer Olympics.
The IHF organizes world championships , held in odd-numbered years, with separate competitions for men and women. The IHF is composed of five continental federations: These federations organize continental championships held every other second year.
In addition to continental competitions between national teams, the federations arrange international tournaments between club teams.
The current worldwide attendance record for seven-a-side handball was set on September 6, , during a neutral venue German league game between HSV Hamburg and the Mannheim -based Rhein-Neckar Lions.
On the coin, the modern athlete directs the ball in his hands towards his target, while in the background the ancient athlete is just about to throw a ball, in a game known as cheirosphaira, in a representation taken from a black-figure pottery vase of the Archaic period.
The most recent commemorative coin featuring handball is the British 50 pence coin , part of the series of coins commemorating the London Olympic Games.
Team handball Website Name: May 3, URL: Media related to Handball at Wikimedia Commons. The Brazuca went through an extensive testing process before its use at the World Cup.
The original Brazuca balls for the World Cup finals were contract manufactured in Pakistan,  however bono fide replica balls are made in both China  and Pakistan.
Long Way, however, was unable to meet the high demand for the ball. Over 42 million Brazuca balls were exported from Sialkot. Adidas unveiled the Brazuca at a launch event on 3 December , two days ahead of the traditional unveiling of the World Cup match ball at the draw of the group stages of the World Cup Final.
The following competition used Brazuca ball which was also used in the World Cup, unless named different. Replica Brazucas were sold worldwide, with the traditional hexagonal design, for far cheaper than the official Brazucas.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 September Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 17 December World Cup ball set to surpass the Jabulani".